When you look at an old magnificent building today, all you are doing is probably enjoying its beauty, and maybe thinking about the construction process that led to its creation.
In reality, the physical cultural architectural heritage that we see around us today in cities around the world is a result of very long scientific developments, and transfer of knowledge in and between various societies.
Researchers and archaeologists found the oldest settlements of people in what are modern Egypt and China. The world’s most culturally rich region stretches between these two countries and extends to include a large part of the Mediterranean.
The settlements and developments of architecture mostly appeared in the context of early kingdoms and empires that were focused on the development and diversification of the sciences and processes they were good at, including architecture and know-hows.
The exchange between countries and civilizations was mostly happening because of various contacts and commercial interactions. One of the examples of such interactions was the Silk Roads that connected the Mediterranean with what is now China. While Americas have developed their own distinct cultures, Europe developed its technologies and methods on its own by interacting with other cultures through its existence.
One of the issues with preserving and studying architectural treasures is that they are a subject to multiple kinds of deterioration.
The types of deterioration include weather, ageing and usage by people. The degree of wear typically depends on many factors including the type of a building, materials used, repairs made over the lifespan of a building and the region where the building is located.
For example, many of the areas with richest cultures and richest architecture are located in the areas of the world which have the largest natural risks such as earthquakes and floods. These have been causing and continue to cause destruction of historic architecture and works of art.